The Systems Analysis research department produced an appraisal report for the Ministry of the Environment, Climate Protection and the Energy Sector which served as a basis for a Climate Protection Act. Subsequently, the department also prepared an initial assessment of selected economic effects of the act. To assess these economic effects, the department analysed system-analytical cost-benefit impacts, distribution effects and selected macro-economic effects (e.g. gross employment); each of these factors facilitates direct comparison of the positive and the negative effects. We focussed on assessing the cost-benefit impacts of developing renewable energies in the different application areas as well as on increasing energy efficiency in the residential building sector via refurbishment measures. These measures are considered key factors for achieving the goals under the climate protection act by 2020. The results show that, although additional differential costs initially go up, they show a downward tendency from 2020 onwards. However, these costs are only partly attributable to the activities undertaken by the regional state, which specifically include the accelerated development of wind energy via an amendment of the Land Use Planning Act and the Heating Act. All in all, it has been shown that the additional costs induced by the Climate Protection Act are relatively low.