An example for the battery system technology efforts is the project LiANA+, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy (BMWi) under the leadership of an industrial company, which was successfully completed 2013. The aim of the project was the development of large electrical storage systems for use in diesel‐electric trains. In contrast to automotive applications, a higher number of cycles and a longer service life are required along with different standards of safety and reliability. Due to the hybridisation of the drive train with a lithium‐ion battery, a substantial reduction in fuel consumption has been achieved. Moreover, by running the diesel engine at its optimum operating point, emissions were significantly reduced.
ZSW’s task was to characterise the selected cells and modules developed during the project in terms of performance, durability and safety. On the basis of validated dynamic, electro‐thermal models of the cell, algorithms for state estimation (state of charge and lifetime) and performance prediction of the entire battery were developed, simulated and optimised in Matlab/Simulink. The software was then compiled and implemented in the battery management system. The interaction of the electric storage system with the real‐time and runtime‐optimised code in the battery management system with the hybridised, diesel‐electric train drive was ultimately validated through test operation carried out at the company.